Skip to content

GitLab CI template for semantic-release

This project implements a GitLab CI/CD template to automate your versioning and release management with semantic-release, supporting one or several of the following features:

  • determine the next release version number,
  • generate the changelog,
  • commit any changed resource to the Git repository,
  • create and push the Git tag,
  • publish the packages (in GitLab or any other package repository of your choice),
  • any additional custom behavior you are able to script, triggered on the release steps.

Usage

This template can be used both as a CI/CD component or using the legacy include:project syntax.

Use as a CI/CD component

Add the following to your gitlab-ci.yml:

include:
  # 1: include the component
  - component: gitlab.com/to-be-continuous/semantic-release/gitlab-ci-semrel@3.11.1
    # 2: set/override component inputs
    inputs:
      changelog-enabled: true # ⚠ this is only an example

Use as a CI/CD template (legacy)

Add the following to your gitlab-ci.yml:

include:
  # 1: include the template
  - project: 'to-be-continuous/semantic-release'
    ref: '3.11.1'
    file: '/templates/gitlab-ci-semrel.yml'

variables:
  # 2: set/override template variables
  SEMREL_CHANGELOG_ENABLED: "true" # ⚠ this is only an example

Global configuration

The semantic-release template uses some global configuration used throughout all jobs.

Input / Variable Description Default value
image / SEMREL_IMAGE The Docker image used to run semantic-release registry.hub.docker.com/library/node:lts-slim
version / SEMREL_VERSION The semantic-release version to use latest
exec-version / SEMREL_EXEC_VERSION The @semantic-release/exec version to use latest
🔒 GITLAB_TOKEN A GitLab project access token or personal access token with api, read_repository and write repository scopes. ⚠ This variable is mandatory and defined by semantic-release itself. none
🔒 GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL A Git author email address associated with the GITLAB_TOKEN bot user. This is defined by semantic-release itself, and required if the verify-user push rules enabled for the project none
🔒 GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL A Git committer email address associated with the GITLAB_TOKEN bot user. This is defined by semantic-release itself, and required if the verify-user push rules enabled for the project none
config-dir / SEMREL_CONFIG_DIR directory containing your semantic-release configuration .
required-plugins-file / SEMREL_REQUIRED_PLUGINS_FILE An optional file for additional npm packages to install semrel-required-plugins.txt

Jobs will extract required plugin packages from discovered configuration. If your configuration needs additional packages, add them, one per line, to SEMREL_REQUIRED_PLUGINS_FILE file. Each line must be a valid npm install package argument.

Jobs

semantic-release job

This job runs semantic-release in ci mode.

⚠ This template supports all semantic-release configuration files except for release.config.js and custom CLI arguments.

If no configuration is found, the template will generate one with the following options:

Variables

As specified in the previous chapter, these variables are only used to generated a .releaserc when no configuration is found in the repository.

Input / Variable Description Default value
changelog-enabled / SEMREL_CHANGELOG_ENABLED Add the @semantic-release/changelog plugin which will commit a changelog file in the repository if set to true. none
changelog-file / SEMREL_CHANGELOG_FILE changelogFile @semantic-release/changelog option. none (use the plugin default value which is CHANGELOG.md).
changelog-title / SEMREL_CHANGELOG_TITLE changelogTitle @semantic-release/changelog option. You might want to use markdown format (for example # MyApp Changelog). none
dry-run / SEMREL_DRY_RUN Activate the dryRun semantic-release option if present. none
auto-release-enabled / SEMREL_AUTO_RELEASE_ENABLED When set to true the job start automatically. When not set (default), the job is manual. none
branches-ref / SEMREL_BRANCHES_REF Regular expression pattern matching branches from which releases should happen (should match your semantic-release configuration) /^(master|main)$/
tag-format / SEMREL_TAG_FORMAT tagFormat semantic-release option. ⚠ don't forget to double the $ character so it is not interpreted by GitLab. $${version}
hooks-dir / SEMREL_HOOKS_DIR Hook scripts folder. .
commit-message / SEMREL_COMMIT_MESSAGE Add a custom commit message based on semantic-release/git option. none (uses semantic-release default commit message)
release-disabled / SEMREL_RELEASE_DISABLED Disable this job. none

Hook scripts

The generated .releaserc will include the @semantic-release/exec plugin if any of the following scripts is found in the $SEMREL_HOOKS_DIR folder:

verify-conditions.sh

See exec verifyConditionsCmd.

Parameters: none

verify-release.sh

See exec verifyReleaseCmd.

Parameters:

  1. Last release version
  2. next release version
  3. next release type
prepare.sh

See exec prepareCmd.

Parameters:

  1. Last release version
  2. next release version
  3. next release type
publish.sh

See exec publishCmd.

Parameters:

  1. Last release version
  2. next release version
  3. release branch
  4. commits count
  5. current date
success.sh

See exec successCmd.

Parameters:

  1. Last release version
  2. next release version
fail.sh

See exec failcmd.

Parameters:

  1. Last release version
  2. next release version

Signing release commits with GPG

For an introduction on commit signing, see GitLab documentation.

To make semantic-release sign its commits, use the following variable.

Input / Variable Description Default value
🔒 SEMREL_GPG_SIGNKEY Path to the GPG signkey exported with gpg --armor --export-secret-key
⚠ Declare as a masked project variable of File type.
none

semantic-release-info job

This job (disabled by default) runs semantic-release with dry-run mode in .pre stage to save the following variables as dotenv artifact making them available for the next pipeline stages:

  • SEMREL_INFO_LAST_VERSION: latest released version
  • SEMREL_INFO_NEXT_VERSION: next release version (based on actual commits and comments)
  • SEMREL_INFO_NEXT_VERSION_TYPE: next release type (major|minor|patch)

⚠ SEMREL_INFO_NEXT_VERSION and SEMREL_INFO_NEXT_VERSION_TYPE wont be available when semantic-release commits analysis determine that no release will be performed.

This job can be enabled by defining the SEMREL_INFO_ON variable:

  • prod to enable on production branch only (main or master by default with PROD_REF environment variable)
  • branches-ref to enable on branches associated with branches-ref component configuration or SEMREL_BRANCHES_REF environment variable (main or master by default as it fallbacks on PROD_REF environment variable).
  • protected to enable on protected references
  • all to enable on all Git references. ⚠ Beware that this job requires the GITLAB_TOKEN variable so you must unprotect it (this will make privilege escalation possible from developer to maintainer).

Semantic Release Commit Analyzer and Release Notes Configuration

Semantic Release determines the semantic version, major.minor.patch, with the use of @semantic-release/commit-analyzer and @semantic-release/release-notes-generator presets. The default preset is angular. The default may lead to unexpected versioning or release notes, especially when not in an Angular project nor using the Angular standard.

The commit message parser may be changed by defining the commit-spec / SEMREL_COMMIT_SPEC variable:

Input / Variable Description Default
commit-spec / SEMREL_COMMIT_SPEC commit specification preset (possible values: angular, codemirror, ember, eslint, express, jquery, jshint, conventionalcommits (cc short form supported)) angular

Conventional Commit Specification

The preset of conventionalcommits (or cc) is a good option for most users. The specification is well defined and documented and compatible with tools like Husky and commitlint. Semantic Release has plans to make conventionalcommits the default in the future.

Commit Message Controls

The commit-spec / SEMREL_COMMIT_SPEC value installs the parser requirement for Semantic Release only. Adherence to a specification with commit message controls is not provided. Angular and Conventional Commits are widely supported by commitlint and commitizen, though additional devDependencies and configuration files may be required, please review the tooling documentation for more information.

Note on supporting Semantic Release versions

If the version of Semantic Release is pinned using SEMREL_VERSION prior to v24, automated versioning via commit messaging may fail in unexpected ways. See conventional-changelog-conventionalcommits v8.0.0 breaks semantic release or consider upgrading the pinned version to v24 or better to restore behaviors.

Secrets management

Here are some advices about your secrets (variables marked with a 🔒):

  1. Manage them as project or group CI/CD variables:
    • masked to prevent them from being inadvertently displayed in your job logs,
    • protected if you want to secure some secrets you don't want everyone in the project to have access to (for instance production secrets).
  2. In case a secret contains characters that prevent it from being masked, simply define its value as the Base64 encoded value prefixed with @b64@: it will then be possible to mask it and the template will automatically decode it prior to using it.
  3. Don't forget to escape special characters (ex: $ -> $$).
  4. You can also manage secrets using Vault variant

Using semantic-release with other to-be-continuous templates

The semantic-release template has been designed to interoperate gracefully with release-capable to-be-continuous templates.

Unfortunaltely, there isn't one single configuration that fits all needs. Instead, the semantic-release template configuration will have to be adapted to your case.

There are actually 2 questions that will determine the required configuration:

  1. which Delivery Mode are you using in your project?
    • Application Deployment mode should trigger the release directly from your production branch (main or master by default),
    • Software Distribution mode should trigger the release through a tag pipeline.
  2. does the release involve changing files in your repository (and therefore creating a Git commit)?

Case 1: Application Deployment mode

When using the Application Deployment delivery mode in your project, the release should be triggered directly from the production branch (main or master by default).

In that case you'll need to:

  1. enable the semantic-release info job,
    this is the job that will provide next release information to the other template(s)
  2. by setting info-on input / SEMREL_INFO_ON variable to prod (or any suitable non-empty value)
  3. disable the semantic-release job,
    the release will be handled by other template(s) directly from the production branch
  4. by setting release-disabled input / SEMREL_RELEASE_DISABLED variable to true
  5. make sure the other template(s) provide a semantic-release integration to perform the release from the semantic-release info job. Templates supporting it:
    • Docker,
    • Helm,
    • Maven,
    • Python,
    • S2I.

Case 2: Software Distribution mode without any Git commit

This is the easiest case as nothing specific has to be done to address it:

  • by default the semantic-release will analyse each commit on your production branch, and will possibly create a Git tag (but no Git commit) if it determined a release has to be performed,
  • the Git tag will trigger a tag pipeline during which every to-be-continuous template will take care of publishing its versioned package (using the Git tag as the version) to an appropriate packages repository.

Case 3: Software Distribution mode with a Git commit

This case will occur if you configure semantic-release to modify one or several files in your Git repository (ex: pom.xml, pyproject.toml, CHANGELOG.md, README.md...)

In that case, when semantic-release determines a release is required, it will:

  • modify the files,
  • create a Git commit with the changes,
  • create a Git tag with the next release version,
  • push the commit + the tag.

Problem: by default, semantic-release creates a Git commit with comment chore(release): ${nextRelease.version} [skip ci].\ ℹ The [skip ci] part is problematic as it prevents GitLab from triggering the tag pipeline, therefore preventing other to-be-continuous templates from publishing their versioned packages.

To fix this, you'll have to override the default semantic-release Git commit comment in order not to prevent the tag pipeline from being triggered. With this done:

  • the semantic-release will analyse each commit on your production branch, and will possibly create a Git tag if it determined a release has to be performed,
  • the Git tag will trigger a tag pipeline during which every to-be-continuous template will take care of publishing its versioned package (using the Git tag as the version) to an appropriate packages repository.

How to override the Git commit comment

In most cases it is recommended to use chore(release): ${nextRelease.version} [skip ci on prod] as message template.\ ℹ the important part is [skip ci on prod] that prevents GitLab from triggering the pipeline on your production branch only, but not the tag pipeline.

Using a configuration file

If you're configuring semantic-release with a configuration file in your repository, then the Git commit message has to be configured in the @semantic-release/git plugin section.

Here is a .releaserc.yaml configuration example that auto-generates the changelog file, and also replaces the project version in the pyproject.toml using the semantic-release-replace plugin:

plugins:
  # GitLab support
  - '@semantic-release/gitlab'
  # analyses the Git commits
  - '@semantic-release/commit-analyzer'
  # generates the release note from the Git commit messages
  - '@semantic-release/release-notes-generator'
  # generates the CHANGELOG.md file
  - '@semantic-release/changelog'
  # emulates bumpversion (replaces 'version' in pyproject.toml)
  - - semantic-release-replace-plugin
    - replacements:
        - files:
            - pyproject.toml
          from:
            - ^version *= *"\d+\.\d+\.\d+"
          to: 'version = "${nextRelease.version}"'
          countMatches: true
  # git commit/push modified files
  - - '@semantic-release/git'
    - assets:
        - 'CHANGELOG.md'
        - 'pyproject.toml'
      # the commit MUST trigger a pipeline on tag (to perform publish jobs)
      # can be skipped on prod branch
      message: 'chore(release): ${nextRelease.version} [skip ci on prod]'
branches:
  - main
  - master
tagFormat: '${version}'

Using implicit configuration

If you're not configuring semantic-release with a configuration file (but using implicit configuration provided by the template), then the Git commit message can be configured with the commit-message input / SEMREL_COMMIT_MESSAGE variable:

variables:
  # the '$' has to be doubled to prevent GitLab from expanding it as a variable
  SEMREL_COMMIT_MESSAGE: 'chore(release): $${nextRelease.version} [skip ci on prod]'

Variants

The semantic-release template can be used in conjunction with template variants to cover specific cases.

Vault variant

This variant allows delegating your secrets management to a Vault server.

Configuration

In order to be able to communicate with the Vault server, the variant requires the additional configuration parameters:

Input / Variable Description Default value
TBC_VAULT_IMAGE The Vault Secrets Provider image to use (can be overridden) registry.gitlab.com/to-be-continuous/tools/vault-secrets-provider:latest
vault-base-url / VAULT_BASE_URL The Vault server base API url none
vault-oidc-aud / VAULT_OIDC_AUD The aud claim for the JWT $CI_SERVER_URL
🔒 VAULT_ROLE_ID The AppRole RoleID must be defined
🔒 VAULT_SECRET_ID The AppRole SecretID must be defined

Usage

Then you may retrieve any of your secret(s) from Vault using the following syntax:

@url@http://vault-secrets-provider/api/secrets/{secret_path}?field={field}

With:

Parameter Description
secret_path (path parameter) this is your secret location in the Vault server
field (query parameter) parameter to access a single basic field from the secret JSON payload

Example

include:
  # main template
  - component: gitlab.com/to-be-continuous/semantic-release/gitlab-ci-semrel@3.11.1
  # Vault variant
  - component: gitlab.com/to-be-continuous/semantic-release/gitlab-ci-semrel-vault@3.11.1
    inputs:
      vault-base-url: "https://vault.acme.host/v1"
      # audience claim for JWT
      vault-oidc-aud: "https://vault.acme.host"

variables:
  # Secrets managed by Vault
  GITLAB_TOKEN: "@url@http://vault-secrets-provider/api/secrets/b7ecb6ebabc231/semantic-release/token?field=group-access-token"
  # $VAULT_ROLE_ID and $VAULT_SECRET_ID defined as a secret CI/CD variable